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Lyfe cycle of plants, gymnosperm life cycle

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For more information, log on to-http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/Download the study materials here-http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.htmlGymnosperms, like all vascular plants have a sporophyte-dominant life-cycle. The gametophyte (gamete-bearing phase) is relatively short-lived. Two spore types, microspores and megaspores, are typically produced in pollen cones or ovulate cones, respectively. Gametophytes, as with all heterosporous plants, develop within the spore wall. Pollen grains (microgametophytes) mature from microspores, and ultimately produce sperm cells. Megagametophytes develop from megaspores and are retained within the ovule. They typically produce multiple archegonia. During pollination, pollen grains are physically transferred between plants, from pollen cone to the ovule, being transferred by wind or insects. Whole grains enter each ovule through a microscopic gap in the ovule coat (integument) called the micropyle. The pollen grains mature further inside the ovule and produce sperm cells. Two main modes of fertilization are found in gymnosperms. Cycads and Ginkgo have motile sperm that swim directly to the egg inside the ovule, whereas conifers and gnetophytes have sperm with no flagella that are conveyed to the egg along a pollen tube. After fertilization (joining of the sperm and egg cell), the zygote develops into an embryo (young sporophyte). More than one embryo is usually initiated in each gymnosperm seed. The mature seed comprises the embryo and the remains of the female gametophyte, which serves as a food supply, and the seed coat (integument). Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia.Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page PPT source: The biology of life by Neil A. Campbell, Jane B. Reece, Lawrence G. Mitchell, Copyright Pearson/Benjamin CummingsLink- http://www.course-notes.org/biology/slides/campbells_biology_8th_edition

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