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Plant evolution - gymnosperm evolution

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For more information, log on to-http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/Download the study materials here-http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.htmlThere are between 800 and 900 extant or currently living species of Gymnosperms.It is widely accepted that the gymnosperms originated in the late Carboniferous period.[5] This appears to have been the result of a whole genome duplication event around 319 million years ago.[6] Early characteristics of seed plants were evident in fossil progymnosperms of the late Devonian period around 380 million years ago. It has been suggested that during the mid-Mesozoic era, pollination of some extinct groups of gymnosperms were by extinct species of scorpionflies that had specialized proboscis for feeding on pollination drops. The scorpionflies likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding insects on angiosperms.[7][8]Conifers are by far the most abundant extant group of gymnosperms with six to eight families, with a total of 65-70 genera and 600-630 species (696 accepted names).[9] Conifers are woody plants and most are evergreens.[10] The leaves of many conifers are long, thin and needle-like, others species, including most Cupressaceae and some Podocarpaceae, have flat, triangular scale-like leaves. Agathis in Araucariaceae and Nageia in Podocarpaceae have broad, flat strap-shaped leaves.Cycads are the next most abundant group of gymnosperms, with about 130 species. The other extant groups are the 75 - 80 species of Gnetales and one species of Ginkgo. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia.Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

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