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Computer Networks: 1-8 Internet History

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Computer Networksby David Wetherall, Arvind Krishnamurthy, John ZahorjanUniversity of WashingonOverviewComputer networks from ISPs to WiFi and cellular networks are a key part of the information economy. These networks are the foundation for the Web, and they enable companies such as Google, Facebook and Amazon. This course introduces the fundamental problems of computer networking, from sending bits over wires to running distributed applications. For each problem, we explore the design strategies that have proven valuable in practice. Topics include error detection and correction, multiple-access, bandwidth allocation, routing, internetworking, reliability, quality of service, naming, content delivery, and security. As we cover these topics, you will learn how the internals of the Internet work to support the Web and other networked applications. You will develop a detailed understanding of widely-used networking technologies such as TCP/IP, HTTP, 802.11, Ethernet, and DNS.Topics CoveredWe progress through the following topics week by week.Introduction, Protocols, Layered ModelNetwork componentsUses of networksTraceroute and socket APIProtocols and layeringReference models (Internet, OSI)History of the internetPhysical and Direct Link LayerSimple link models (latency, bandwidth-delay product)Media and signalsModulation schemes (baseband, passband)Fundamental limits (Shannon)FramingError detection schemes (checksum, CRC)Error correction schemes (Hamming)Retransmissions, Multiple access, SwitchingRetransmissions (ARQ)Multiplexing schemes (TDM. FDM)Random access / Ethernet (CSMA family)Wireless access / 802.11Contention-free access / Token RingLAN switching (switches vs. hubs, spanning tree, backward learning)Network Layer and InternetworkingDatagram and virtual circuit models (IP, MPLS)IP addressing and forwarding (prefixes, longest matching prefix)IP helpers: ARP, DHCPInternetworking (fragmentation, path MTU discovery, ICMP)IPv4 and IPv6Network Address Translation (NAT)RoutingShortest cost routing modelDijkstra's algorithmFloodingDistance Vector and Link-stateEqual-cost multi-path routingHierarchical routing (prefixes, aggregation, subnets)Multiple parties and policy (BGP)Transport Layer, Reliable TransportSockets, ports and service APIsReliable and unreliable delivery (TCP, UDP)Connection establishment and teardownFlow control and sliding windowsRetransmission timeoutsCongestion ControlFairness and EfficiencyAdditive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD)TCP congestion control (slow start, fast retransmission and recovery)Congestion avoidance (ECN)Web and Content DistributionNaming (DNS)Web protocols (HTTP, caching)Content Distribution Networks (CDNs)Peer-to-Peer (BitTorrent)Quality of Service and Real-Time AppsStreaming media and ConferencingScheduling disciplines (FIFO, WFQ)Traffic shaping with Token BucketsDifferentiated ServicesRate and Delay GuaranteesOptional: Network SecurityEncryption for Confidentiality and AuthenticityWeb security (SSL, DNSSEC)Wireless security (802.11i)Firewalls and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS)

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