Political and Cultural History of Contemporary India Lec 11; upper-division undergraduate course at UCLA, lecture of 5 May 2009 [Spring 2009 term]. This lecture initiates a section on conflicts over religion, ethnicity, and language in India (and broadly South Asia). The conflict over the Babri Masjid, and offer some comments on secularism and communalism in India. Violence against Muslims ('external Others') and against Dalits ('internal Others'). We look at such phenomena as communalism and secularism; fundamentalism and nationalism. Some comments on the dispute in Ayodhya; the secular and communal worldviews.